by Hibberd Kline
Impunity Watch, Asia

BEIJING, China In a statement released on the 27th of July by a human rights group based in China (HRIC), a call for a “full and transparent investigation” for the July 18th violence that rocked the city of Hotan in China’s northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was made.

A handout picture shows rescuers carrying an injured person out of a police station after a clash in Hotian, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, July 18, 2011 (Photo Courtesy of Reuters)
A handout picture shows rescuers carrying an injured person out of a police station after a clash in Hotian, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, July 18, 2011 (Photo Courtesy of Reuters)

HRIC’s statement follows nine days of inconsistent reports detailing the nature of the incident. Officials initially placed the death toll at “at least 4.” However, China’s state media later reported that Chinese security forces had since raised the figure to 18. Official government sources and state media maintain that the violence occurred when a group of ethnic minority Uyghurs attacked a local police station. Official sources have alternatively referred to the alleged attackers as “Thugs,” perpetrators of an “organized terrorist attack,” “rioters,” “separatists” and “religious extremists.”

The latest official report was released on July 26 in a statement by the Chinese embassy in Turkey. The embassy put the number of attackers at 18. The embassy further alleged that the 18 were “radical religious fundamentalist and violent terrorists” armed with Molotov cocktails, knives and axes.

According to the embassy, one police officer and a few hostages were killed in the attack. China’s official Xinhua news agency reported that police gunned down 14 attackers.

World Uyghur Congress (WUC), a Uyghur exile group based in Germany, tells an entirely different story.

WUC claims that security forces beat 14 people to death and gunned down six others. WUC further suggests that the incident did not take place at the police station, but at a nearby Bazaar where Uyghurs had peacefully gathered to demand the release of previously detained family members. WUC reports that at least 70 people have been detained since the violence began. WUC claims to possess several eye-witness accounts of the incident. This claim is a key factor behind HRIC’s call for a full independent investigation.

The Uyghur population has long chafed under restrictions on their religion and other rights. However, tensions between Xinjiang’s Uyghur ethnic minority and China’s ethnic Han majority have grown markedly strained in recent years.

Xinjiang is currently experiencing significant ethnic Han migration and a coordinated effort by the Chinese government to develop the region’s rich oil and natural gas reserves, which are seen as crucial to China’s economic development.

Was the violence in Hotan an organized terrorist attack, a riot, or a peaceful protest turned violent at the hands of government security forces? With heavy domestic censorship and a foreign media blackout, it is hard to tell, many argue that China’s lack of transparency and consistency in its accounts of the 18 July event do not aid beneficial dialogue.

For more information please see:

Today’s Zaman – China criticiszes press coverage of Hotan incidents – 29 July 2011

World Uyghur Congress – Uyghurs to Stage Demonstration in Vienna to Protest Hotan Incident – 28 July 2011

HRIC – HRIC Calls for Full and Transparent Investigation of July 18 Incident in Hotan – 27 July 2011

Voice of America – Details of Alleged Xinjiang ‘Terrorist Attack’ Still Sketchy – 27 July 2011

China Daily – 14 rioters shot down in Xinjiang attack – 20 July 2011

Global Times – Hotan on high alert after attack – 20 July 2011

Guardian – China raises Xinjiang police station death toll to 18 – 20 July 2011

BBC – Xinjiang police attack was terrorism, China says – 19 July 2011

Sunday Times – China blames ‘terrorists’ for attack in Xinjiang: report – 19 July 2011

Yahoo News – Clash in China’s Xinjiang killed 20: exile group – 19 July 2011

Violent Murders of Two French Tourists in Argentina Remain Unsolved

by Emilee Gaebler
Impunity Watch Reporter, South America

 BUENOS AIRES, Argentina – Recent events in the Northern Province of Salta have shocked the traveling community.  Questions regarding the safety of visiting Argentina are being raised as a predominant concern in the wake of two violent murders. 

Police stand guard at the entrance to the trail where the bodies were discovered (Photo Courtesy of Sina)
Police stand guard at the entrance to the trail where the bodies were discovered. (Photo Courtesy of Sina)

The bodies of two French tourists were found near hiking trails in the San Lorenzo hills last Friday.  A couple from Chaco was walking in the area, when they stumbled upon the bodies in a ravine just off the trail.  The bodies were identified as Moumni Houdop and Cassandre Bouvier.  Both women were French citizens around 30 years old.

The women were shot execution style, one in the back of the head and the other in her back.  Their clothes were ripped and both bodies had lacerations on them.  One of the bodies showed signs of sexual abuse.  The women had arrived in Salta on July 11 and checked into a hostel where they intended to stay until July 19.  They were last seen at their hostel on the 16th of July.

Police authorities have stated the belief that the women were most likely held for a number of days before being murdered.  The inability to account for the two women’s whereabouts, for a number of days, and their backpacks remaining at the hostel indicate that a kidnapping is likely.  It was released that the bodies were found roughly 48 to 72 hours after being shot.

José Hinojosa, the policeman in charge of Salta police press releases, stated that roughly 80 officers immediately and thoroughly searched the crime scene for evidence but were hindered by the hilly terrain, approaching night and cold temperatures.  Forensic authorities have verified that DNA evidence was recovered from the bodies.  Tests are being run and it is possible that the results will point officers towards those who so viciously committed these murders. 

French authorities noted that they wanted “those who are responsible to be identified and tried.”  The governor of Salta, Juan Manuel Uturbey, promised that authorities were working to “clear up this appalling crime immediately.”  At this point, two suspects have been brought in for questioning but no arrests have been made.  So far, no motive for the murders has been revealed. 


For more information, please see:

 The Argentina Independent – Two French Tourists Murdered in Salta – 30 July 2011

 CNN World – Argentinian Authorities: 2 French Tourists ‘Viciously’ Killed – 31 July 2011

 France 24 – Two French Tourists Killed in Northern Argentina – 1 August 2011

 MercoPress – Argentine Police on the Track of Two French Tourist Packers Killed in Salta – 1 August 2011

CNN World – Argentinian Authorities Arrest Second Suspect in Tourist Murders – 3 August 2011


By Adom M. Cooper
Impunity Watch Reporter, Middle East

CAIRO, Egypt–From behind the bars of a holding cell, former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak remained defiant. The 83-year-old man listened to the charges of corruption and complicity in the unlawful killing of protesters against him and gave a simple, yet potent answer.

Former President Mubarak during his trial. (Photo Courtesy of Reuters)
Former President Mubarak during his trial. (Photo Courtesy of Reuters)

“I have not committed any such crimes.”

Premeditated murder, the killing of protesters, the failure to use his power and resources to stop the mistreatment of civilians, and collusion with other government officials in the misuse of state funds all included the charges against Mubarak.

The proceedings took place in a temporary court at the Police Academy of Cairo and were shown on live television. A trial for the former Egyptian leader has been one of the crucial demands and desires that united protesters since 11 February, the day that Mubarak’s regime collapsed. Some 3,000 soldiers and police officers were drafted with the sole purpose of maintaining order at the police academy for the first day of the trial.

Mubarak was flown to Cairo from Sharm el-Sheikh, the Red Sea resort where he has resided since being removed from power. Due to recent health complications, including treatment since April for a heart condition, there was speculation that Mubarak would not actually appear in court. But he did appear and was wheeled into the cage from where he observed the proceedings. Mubarak’s two sons, Gamal and Alaa, accompanied their father inside the defendants’ cage, both donning white prison robes.

When the presiding judge, Ahmed Refaat, requested that Mubarak identify himself, the former leader responded and slightly raised his hand from the horizontal position that he was situated on the bed of the cell.

“Yes, I am here.”

Mubarak’s lawyer, Farid el-Deeb, made numerous requests to the court on behalf of Mubarak. Arguably, the most noteworthy request was to summon some 1,600 witnesses to testify, including Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Mubarak’s longtime defense minister.

Sherine Tadros, an Al-Jazeera correspondent, shared these sentiments about this request from el-Deeb.

“El-Deeb asked for Tantawi-who is also the defense minister and effectively the person running this country right now-to become a witness within this trial. He said it was Field Marshal Tantawi who has been in control of this country since 28 January 2011. I think it raises a lot of questions about the proceedings of this trial, how many others serving still-within the government, within the authority, within that structure-are going to be implicated in what is going on.”

Some 800 people were killed and approximately another 6,000 wounded in the 18 total days of protests that overthrew Mubarak’s seemingly everlasting regime. His trial represents a very tangible victory of sorts for all of those involved in the region-wide uprisings that have been dubbed the Arab Spring.

The image of Mubarak sitting behind bars and listening to the charges is certainly a surreal feeling for many Egyptians as well as those in other Middle Eastern countries. One of the protest leaders, film-maker Ahmed Rasheed, told BBC correspondents that people across Cairo had cluttered around televisions in shops and cafes, watching and debating as the trial was broadcast.

“I was quite overwhelmed to see the scene taking place. I was very pessimistic about this. I didn’t believe he was going to show up in court.”

The trial will resume on 15 August 2011.

Public demonstrations and riots continue to occur in Egypt. Before the trial began, scuffles broke out between hundreds of supporters and opponents of Mubarak. Hundreds of white-clad police and riot police armed with shields and helmets intervened to stop the demonstrators from throwing stones and bottles at one another.

It is evident that the Arab Spring has a long way to go in order to be viewed as a holistic success. But perhaps the beginning of Mubarak’s trial is just the kinetic energy that it needed to secure healthy change throughout the region.

For more information, please see:

Al-Jazeera-Mubarak pleads ‘not guilty’ at Cairo trial-03 August 2011

BBC-Mubarak trial: Egypt’s ex-president denies all charges-03 August 2011

CNN-Ailing Mubarak wheeled into courtroom cage for trial-03 August 2011

NYT-Mubarak on Trial, in Stark Image of Arab Upheaval-03 August 2011

Israeli Court Orders Extradition of Srebrenica Massacre Suspect

By Terance Walsh
Impunity Watch Reporter, Europe

JERUSALEM, Israel – A district court in Jerusalem on Monday ruled that Aleksandar Cvetkovic, a Bosnian Serb, should be extradited and tried in a Bosnian court for war crimes he committed in one of the worst massacres of the former Yugoslav republic’s 1992-1995 war.

The Bosnian-born Aleksandar Cvetkovic, who served in the Bosnian Serb army during the war, immigrated to Israel in 2006 with his Jewish wife and children.  (Photo courtesy of European Jewish Press)
The Bosnian-born Aleksandar Cvetkovic, who served in the Bosnian Serb army during the war, immigrated to Israel in 2006 with his Jewish wife and children. (Photo courtesy of European Jewish Press)

Cvetkovic was part of an eight-man firing squad that killed approximately 1,000 Muslim Bosnians at Branjevo farm in July 1995.  Evidence in the extradition reports indicates that Cvetkovic made use of an M-84 machine-gun to speed up the killings.  The 42-year-old Cvetkovic has denied the charges against him, maintaining that he was a driver for the Bosnian Serb forces but did not participate in the massacre.

The killings were part of the Srebrenica massacre, what news sources call the “worst atrocity on European soil since World War II,” which was led by Gen. Ratko Mladic and left over 8,000 Muslim men and boys dead.

In 2006, Cvetkovic immigrated to Israel.  He obtained Israeli citizenship through his Jewish wife and resided in Carmiel prior to his arrest.  If he is convicted, he will not be allowed to serve his prison sentence in Israel because the crimes of which he is accused pre-date his immigration.

The extradition process began in January this year.  Israeli authorities arrested and arraigned Cvetkovic and held him in police custody because of “the enormity of the danger posed to the public.”

Judge Amnon Cohen decided to extradite Cvetkovic and imposed several conditions on the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including holding Cvetkovic in a separate, secure detention wing during his arrest, and maintaining his security if he is convicted and sentenced to a prison term.

Furthermore, the Bosnian government must allow Cvetkovic regular visits by consular representatives of the Israeli embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  If Cvetkovic is convicted, the Bosnian court must impose a sentence in accordance with that prescribed by the European Court of Human Rights.

The UN war crimes tribunal in The Hague has sentenced fourteen Bosnian Serbs in connection with the Srebrenica massacre.  A Bosnian war crimes court that was set up in 2005 to assist The Hague has jailed twelve and acquitted seven who were alleged to have participated in the Srebrenica massacre.

Cvetkovic will have thirty days to appeal the Israeli Supreme Court’s decision to extradite him.  Israeli officials said that the extradition appeals process might take two years.

For more information, please see:

Al Jazeera – Israel to Extradite Citizen Over Srebrenica – 1 August 2011

European Jewish Press – Israel to Extradite Serb Accused of Srebrenica Role – 1 August 2011

Jerusalem Post – Court Rules to Extradite Bosnia Massacre Suspect – 1 August 2011

Haaretz – Israeli Man Arrested for Alleged Involvement in Bosnia Genocide – 18 January 2011

ICC rejects European suggestions that Gaddafi remain in Libya as part of peace plan

By Greg Hall
Impunity Watch Reporter, Europe

THE HAGUE, Netherlands – The International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague recently issued arrest warrants for Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, as well as his son Saif al-Islam, and his military intelligence chief, Abdullah Senussi. International prosecutors have accused the three of crimes against humanity, including killing civilian protestors during Libya’s Arab Spring.

A member of staff at the Libyan embassy steps on a portrait of Muammar Gaddafi, who the ICC says must be arrested. (Photo courtesy of Reuters)

The ICC dismissed suggestions by Britain and France to allow Gaddafi the opportunity to stay in Libya as part of a negotiation to entice Gaddafi to step down from power.  The ICC said that Gaddafi could not be allowed to escape justice. “He has to be arrested,” said Florence Olara, spokeswoman for the court’s chief prosecutor, Luis Moreno-Ocampo.

Olara said the decision to seek justice had been made in the UN, adding that the ICC’s arrest warrants were “legal facts” which “cannot go away”.

The court is accusing Gaddafi of crimes against humanity and of ordering attacks on civilians during an uprising against him held in February of this year.  As a result of the orders issued by Gaddafi, thousands of civilians are believed to have been killed in the attacks.

ICC presiding judge Sanji Monageng said there were “reasonable grounds to believe” that Gaddafi and his son were “criminally responsible as indirect co-perpetrators” for the persecution and murder of civilians in Libya.

“We are extremely happy that the whole world has united in prosecuting Gaddafi for the crimes he has committed,” rebel council spokesman Jalal al-Galal told Reuters news agency from the rebel stronghold Benghazi. “The people feel vindicated by such a response.”

Libya has not accepted the ICC’s decision to call for Gaddafi’s arrest.

Mohammad al-Qamoodi told a Tripoli news conference the court was “a tool of the Western world to prosecute leaders in the third world”.

He added: “The leader of the revolution and his son do not hold any official position in the Libyan government and therefore they have no connection to the claims of the ICC against them.”

For more information please see:

Guardian – Gaddafi can’t be left in Libya, says international criminal court – 26 July 2011

Huffington Post – The Prosecutor v. Muammar Gaddafi — and a Step Closer to Justice – 26 July 2011

BBC – Libya rejects ICC arrest warrant for Muammar Gaddafi – 28 June 2011

Herald Sun – Libya rejects ICC’s arrest warrant for Muammar Gaddafi – June 27 2011

Syrian Death Toll Sparks Condemnation and Foretells Future Violence

By Tyler Yates
Impunity Watch Reporter, Middle East

DAMASCUS, Syria — To the utter shock and repulsion of much of the world, other Arab nations included, the bloody onslaught against Syrian protesters by the Syrian government continues to grow.

Syrian civilians attempt to avoid gunfire in Hama (Photo courtesy of the Los Angeles Times/Reuters TV).
Syrian civilians attempt to avoid gunfire in Hama (Photo courtesy of the Los Angeles Times/Reuters TV).

On Sunday approximately 102 people were killed throughout Syria, 76 of them from the city of Hama.  Rights activists report that the Syrian military brought a tank-based assault that included large amounts of shelling, which caused the fatalities.

The troops were not able to reach the city center, which has been under the control of protesters since mid-March, a fact that has made Hama a beacon of hope to the anti-government movement.

Hama is also of historical note due to its role in previous violent governmental attacks.  It was the site of the infamous 1982 massacre in which the military of then President Hafez al-Assad, father of current President Basar Assad, crushed an uprising by killing over 10,000 people.

This history has created a resiliency in the residents of Hama, a resiliency that has shown itself during the many months of this current uprising against Assad’s authoritarian regime, and one that may be partly responsible for the ramping up of violence by the government against the protesters.

Monday marked the beginning of Ramadan, the Muslim holy month.  Some hoped that its coming would put a halt to the violence, but that doesn’t appear to be the case.  At least 9 people were killed throughout Syria on the first day of Ramadan, and military movements suggest that there is more to come.

Ramadan could be a critical period for the Syrian protests.  It is traditional for Muslims to gather outside for nighttime prayer during the holy month, and protesters are planning to shift their rallies around this schedule.  In response to this threat the government has already begun stepping up its mass arrests of protesters.

Rami Nakhle, a Syrian activist, says that the protesters have “burned their boots,” an Arabic saying that means there is no going back.  He fears that if they stop now the military will arrest every activist in Syria.  They can either win or sacrifice all those who are fighting.

Arabs around the world are reacting strongly against Assad’s brutal attacks, but most Arab governments have remained silent.  This is likely because they do not wish to stir up trouble in their own backyards, fearing the power of the protest, a fear that does have some basis in fact.  The United States and European Union have also condemned the attacks, but any Western involvement is both unlikely and imprudent due to its current campaigns in Libya against Muammar Qaddafi.

Despite the nearly universal condemnation of Assad’s actions there appears little want to apply pressure to his ousting as president.  The international community is concerned that his departure could leave a power vacuum in Syria, triggering nationwide instability and civil war.

For more information, please see:

Boston Globe — Syria steps up attacks, seeking to crush revolt in city of Hama — 2 Aug 2011

NPR — Syrian Opposition Echoes Cry for Liberty or Death — 2 Aug 2011

Al Jazeera — No Ramadan respite for Syrian protesters — 1 Aug 2011

New York Times — In Middle East, a Restive First Day of Ramadan — 1 Aug 2011

Reuters — Arabs angry over Syria crackdown but governments silent — 1 Aug 2011

Political Asylum Denied More Frequently in El Paso

By Brittney Hodnik
Impunity Watch Reporter, North America

WASHINGTON, United States – A report this week shows disturbing numbers regarding political asylum petitions in the United States.  Specifically, two El Paso judges have denial rates well above the national average.  The El Paso, Texas location deals mostly with immigrants seeking asylum from Mexico or Central America locations.

Mexican journalist Emilio Gutierrez in New Mexico in 2010. (Image courtesy of New York Times)
Mexican journalist Emilio Gutierrez in New Mexico in 2010. (Image courtesy of New York Times)

The Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (“TRAC”) is a non-partisan center based at Syracuse University.  The TRAC reports on the enforcement activities of the federal government, according to The Texas Tribune.  This most recent report found that the national average for judges who have heard 100 cases or more is a denial rate of 53.2%.  Judges William L. Abbott and Thomas C. Roepke however, have denied political asylum to 83.3% of their combined 346 cases.

Furthermore, the TRAC study notes, “the unusual persistence of these disparities – no matter how the asylum cases are examined – indicates that the identity of the judge who handles a particular matter often is more important than the underlying facts,” according to The Washington Independent.

According to The El Paso Times, in order to obtain political asylum, a person must show a well-founded fear of persecution based on his or her race, religion, nationality, or political opinion.

Mexican journalist Emilio Gutierrez fled Chihuahua, Mexico after receiving threats from the Mexican military.  He believes that if he and his teenage son return to Mexico, it is a certain death sentence, as reported by The Texas Tribune.  Gutierrez’s attorney, Carlos Spector is aware of the problems with the asylum process.

“There is a political predisposition by the judges to deny Mexican asylum claims for political and policy reasons,” Spector told The Texas Tribune.  Another immigration attorney, Jacqueline L. Watson told the Texas Tribune that it is difficult to convince judges that there is an imminent threat to life or liberty.

However, Mexico certainly has a long history of terrible human rights abuses.  Many judges deny political asylum citing the fact that things are supposedly getting better in Mexico.  “Tell them to go live in Juarez to see if it’s getting better,” Gutierrez told The Texas Tribune

The Washington Independent reports that many judges deny asylum specifically to Mexican immigrants because the United States has already provided political and financial backing to help fight drug cartels.  Granting political asylum could harm relations, suggesting that the [Mexican] government could not protect its own citizens.

The Syracuse report further noted that the system is overwhelmed causing major delays in the asylum process.  Consequently, Gutierrez’s case has been postponed until May 2012.

For more information, please visit:

Hispanically Speaking News — Immigration Judges at Border Have Higher Rate of Denying Asylum Petitions — 1 Aug. 2011

The Washington Independent — El Paso Immigration Judges Deny Asylum Requests at Higher Rate Than National Average, Finds Report — 1 Aug. 2011

El Paso Times — Law Inhibits Many Mexican Asylum Cases — 31 July 2011

The Texas Tribune — Border Asylum Judges Deny Most Petitions — 31 July 2011

War Crimes Prosecution Watch Vol. 6 Issue 9–1 August 2011

Vol. 6, Issue 9 — August 1, 2011


Central African Republic & Uganda

Darfur, Sudan

Democratic Republic of the Congo




European Court of Human Rights

Court of Bosnia & Herzegovina, War Crimes Chamber

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

Domestic Prosecutions In The Former Yugoslavia


Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

Special Tribunal for Lebanon

Bangladesh International Crimes Tribunal

War Crimes Investigations in Burma




Universal Jurisdiction


War Crimes Prosecution Watch is a bi-weekly e-newsletter that compiles official documents and articles from major news sources detailing and analyzing salient issues pertaining to the investigation and prosecution of war crimes throughout the world. For more information about War Crimes Prosecution Watch, please contact

Senegalese Rapper Released After Questioned for Criticizing President

By Carolyn Abdenour
Impunity Watch Reporter, Africa

DAKAR, Senegal – On Wednesday, July 27, Senegal’s police released the popular rapper Omar Toure from custody after they questioned him for criticizing President Abdoulaye Wade at a rally on Saturday. The police arrested Toure, known as Thiat, around 5 P.M. on Monday because he objected to Wade’s bid for a third term. Toure was not officially charged before being released. The Media Foundation of West Africa (“MFWA”) reported that police released Toure on the conditionthat he would remain in the jurisdiction.

Toure speaking at the rally on Saturday. (Photo courtesy of Mail and Guardian)

Fadel Barro, coordinator of the Fed-Up Movement, reported Toure’s arrest. Toure is one of the leaders of Fed-Up, a collection of rappers founded last January. This movement has emerged as a symbol of protest against social ills, corruption, and power cuts in Wade’s regime.

Wade’s opposition suggests Toure’s arrest reflects a “growing intimidation ahead of the polls.” His opposition believes Wade has become a dictator during his eleven-year tenure, citing Wade’s high-handed measures to limit citizens’ freedom of expression against the government.

Toure has played a fundamental role in organizing the youth vote. In January, he assisted in launching the Enough is Enough movement, which encourages the youth to register to vote and cease political apathy. When the police arrested Toure, dozens of youth gathered in Darkur, Senegal’s capital, to protest his detention.

Wade’s opposition and other civil society organizations sponsored the “June 23 Movement”, a rally opposed to Wade’s pursuit of a third-term in the 2012 election despite a government ban on public demonstrations in Dakar issued the previous week.  At the rally at Obélisque Square in Dakar, Toure said “An old person of 90 years, who tells lies, does not deserve to lead the country.”

Last month when Wade introduced the constitutional amendment that would allow him to seek a third term, riots erupted throughout the country. Senegal elected Wade in 2000 and reelected him in 2007. Wade’s official age is 85, but many Senegalese citizens believe he is even older.

In February, Toure stated “It’s too bad, but the Wade regime is one of the worst we’ve ever seen…It’s one of the most criminal regimes in the world.” Toure advocates for a president that fuses the politics of Hugo Chavez with the youth of Gambian President Yaya Jammeh.

Toure’s slogan emphasizes his push to increase electoral participation; “You’re not a citizen if you don’t have a voting card.”

For further information, please see:

BBC Senegal police free anit-Wade rapper Toure aka Thiat – 27 July 2011

Senegambia News – Senegal ALERT: Musician arrested for criticising President Wade – 27 July 2011

Mail and Guardian – Senegal cops hold ‘Fed Up’ leader on mystery rap – 26 July 2011

New York Times Protest after Senegal Arrests Activist Rapper – 26 July 2011