Gay Rights are Human Rights: Clinton’s Speech on International Human Rights Day

By Brittney Hodnik
Impunity Watch Reporter, North America

WASHINGTON, United States – December 9 officially marked “International Human Rights Day” throughout the world.  Many celebrated by making others aware of current human rights issues.  Among these discussions was a speech given by Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton supporting gay rights throughout the nation and the world.

Hillary Clinton wants to promote gay rights not only in the United States, but throughout the world. (Image courtesy of The New York Times)

Clinton used her platform not to discuss more obvious human rights abuses, but to talk about the “invisible minority” that is the gay community.  The speech about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals took place in Geneva.  According to the Huffington Post, the speech was far from political, avoiding any praise of the United States; rather, she described the American record as “far from perfect.”

International Human Rights Day commemorates the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948.  Generally, the document serves as a reminder that all people are entitled to fundamental human rights and freedoms.

“Being gay is not a Western invention; it is a human reality.  And protecting the human rights of all people, gay or straight, is not something that only Western governments too,” Clinton said.  The Huffington Post reports that she continued on to give examples of countries where men and women can still face death for being gay.  She reinforced the fact that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, if not applied equally in all countries, is not “universal” at all.

The Los Angeles Times reports that Clinton used the speech to announce the creation of a Global Equality Fund to assist in obtaining civil rights for gays abroad.  The United States has committed about $3 million to the new fund.  President Obama issued a memorandum further explaining the purpose of the fund.

According to the New York Times, the fund is in place to actively combat efforts by other nations that criminalize homosexual conduct, abuse gay men, lesbians, bisexuals or transgendered people, or ignore abuse against them.

Listeners were impressed and humbled by the speech.  A senior State Department official in Geneva said that Clinton “came not to wag a finger, but to really invite a conversation,” reports the Los Angeles Times.

The New York Times reports there are still many countries that use violence against gay individuals.  In Turkey, there are still reports of harassment.  In Saudi Arabia, homosexuality is banned and sex between two men or two women is punishable by death or flogging.

Overall, Clinton’s speech was well received by the congregation.  The New York Times reports that she received a standing ovation as she left the stage.  International Human Rights Day takes place every year on 9 December, encouraging people to be tolerant of other cultures and values, and recognize some of the atrocities ongoing today.

For more information, please visit:

CatholicCulture.org — Promotion of Gay Rights  Worldwide is a U.S. Foreign Policy Priority, says Clinton — 9 Dec. 2011

The Huffington Post — It’s Not Gay Rights; It’s Human Rights: Clinton Breakd Down the Wall — 8 Dec. 2011

The Los Angeles Times — Hillary Clinton Calls on World  to Not Discriminate Against Gays — 6 Dec. 2011

The New York Times — U.S. Backs Gay Rights Abroad, Obama and Clinton Say — 6 Dec. 2011

Labor Minister Carlos Lupi Resigns Amid Corruption Scandal

By Paula Buzzi
Impunity Watch Reporter, South America

SANTIAGO, Chile — Labor minister Carlos Lupi resigned on Sunday after being accused of corruption by news agency Agencia Brasil. The news agency accused him of misusing public funds and supporting certain NGOs over others. Lupi is the seventh minister to resign since President Rousseff took office in January.

Brazil's Labor Minister steps down. (Photo Courtesy of BBC News).

Suspicions surrounding Lupi’s work ethics first arose in November after Brazilian news magazine Veja reported that Lupi and some of his aids were receiving kickbacks from NGOs in exchange for government funding. Additionally, Folha de Sao Paulo newspaper also reported allegations that Lupi was receiving dual government salary for six years as a federal congressional employee and state legislature of Rio de Janeiro at the same time; a violation of Brazilian law.

Lupi has denied the accusations and is confident that the truth will come out. In a statement on the labor ministry’s web site, Lupi wrote “In the face of political and personal persecution in the media that I have been suffering for two months without the right of defense and without proof, and taking into consideration the report of the Ethics Commission of the Presidency — which has also condemned me in a summary fashion based on these same media reports without giving me a right to defend myself — I’ve decided to irrevocably resign my position.” He has not yet been charged with a crime.

Lupi will be replaced by the ministry’s executive secretary, Paulo Roberto dos Santos Pinto starting on Monday.

President Rousseff has publicly thanked Lupi for all his work in her government and that she expects him to “continue contributing to the country.” She has lost six ministers to scandals this year alone which has weakened her relationship with coalition parties in congress.

Opposition groups have suggested that the scandals and resignations surrounding President Rousseffs government show that her government is tainted by corruption. President Rousseff, however rebuts those claims, stating that there has always been corruption in Brazilian governments– the only difference now is that the scandals are being made public and investigated appropriately.

 

For further information, please see:

BBC News – Brazil Labour Minister Carlos Lupi is Latest to Resign – 04 December 2011

CNN – Brazil’s Labor Minister Quits AmidAllegations of Corruption – 04 December 2011

Reuters – Brazilian Labor Minister Quits Amid Scandal – 05 December 2011

MercoPress – Countdown for Brazil’s Labour Minister: Sixth Cabinet Loss on Corruption Allegations – 01 December 2011

Philippine Soldiers Placed on School Grounds

By: Jessica Ties
Impunity Watch Reporter, Asia

MANILA, Philippines – The Philippine government is being pressured by rights groups to end the conducting of military practices on school grounds.

Rights groups are urging the Philippine government to remove soldiers from schools (Photo Courtesy of Human Right Watch).

In an investigation lasting little over a week on northern Luzon island, Human Rights Watch found five cases since 2009 in which schools were being used simultaneously as educational institutions and as military barracks or military.

According to the investigation’s findings, the use of schools lasted anywhere from three months to over a year.

Over twenty principals, teachers and officials were interviewed during the course of the investigation and many expressed significant concern for the danger that the military use could potentially bring to school children.

In addition to the potential conflict between the Philippine government soldiers and the communist insurgents, many of those interviewed also fear that the government soldiers will act inappropriately around or toward the students.

One teacher states that, “[Soldiers] staying there is a big threat. They just leave arms lying around and you know that kids may play with them.”

Other teachers complained that the presence of the soldiers also distracts students from their learning and causes students to be exposed to alcohol and pornography while at school.

During an investigation of Gueday Elementary School, Human Rights Watch discovered that troops had occupied a building on the school and used it to store their weaponry. In addition, the soldiers were known to ask the children to run errands for them and one occasion a soldier threatened to shoot a child who he believed had returned the wrong change.

At another school, Sadanga National High School, soldiers were forced to walk or drive their military vehicles through the school to reach their encampment. The only access road to the school was overlooked by a sentry and according to school personnel, at one time there was a sentry stationed at the school’s only entrance.

Despite concerns about soldier occupation, there have also been reports of positive results from soldier occupation. For example, one school reported receiving a health center while another school reported that soldiers installed a basketball hoop, led morning exercises for the children and cut their hair.

Conflict between the Philippine government has lasted for over forty years and has led both sides to guilty of violating the laws of war.

The use of schools for military purposes is a violation of both Philippine law and international law. Military use of schools was banned by the Philippine government in 1992 after reports of abuse.

The laws of war forbid the attacking of a school unless the schools are being used in the military effort. In addition, the distraction caused but he soldiers have led to concerns that the children’s right to education is also being violated by the military presence.

For more information, please see:

Philippine Daily Inquirer – Gov’t Urged to Stop Soldiers from Using Schools as Barracks – 3 December 2011

Reuters – Philippines Must Stop Using Schools as Military Bases – Rights Group – 1 December 2011

Human Rights Watch – Philippines: Soldiers on the School Grounds – 30 November 2011

Chile Seeks Extradition of Former U.S. Captain for Involvement in Unsolved Murders

by Emilee Gaebler
Impunity Watch Reporter, South America 

SANTIAGO, Chile ­– Chilean judge, Jorge Zepeda has issued an indictment of former US Captain Raymond E. Davis.  The indictment calls for the extradition of Davis to be tried by a Chilean court for his involvement in the murders of two American citizens.

A poster from the movie "Missing" in 1982 which was based on the murder of Horman. (Photo courtesy of Movie Poster)

In 1973, when the murder s of journalist Charles Horman and student Frank Teruggi occurred, Davis was the lead commander of the United States Military Group in Chile.  Both men were murdered in the aftermath of the military coup led by Augusto Pinochet that led to the assassination of socialist President Salvador Allende.

Horman and Teruggi were both supporters of the American Information Source (FIN) which was a left wing group that supported President Allende in the years before the coup.  Horman disappeared on 17 September 1973 and his body was found more than a month later.  He had been shot multiple times and his body showed signs of torture.

Teruggi was taken from his home in Santiago days after the coup and detained at the National Stadium, what Pinochet used as a detention center after his coup.  He was murdered on the 21 or 22 of September 1973 and his body was found in the streets of Santiago.

The media coverage of the two murders seemed to culminate in the award-winning movie “Missing” in 1982.  The film promoted Joyce Horman’s allegations that her husband Charles had been murdered due to his inadvertent knowledge of the CIA involvement in the coup. 

The film led to a libel lawsuit, brought by a number of government officials outraged at the way in which they were portrayed in the film.  The libel lawsuit was eventually dismissed but no answers to the homicides ever emerged.

 Then, in 2000, Joyce Horman filed a criminal suit to revive the case.  In 2001 the Chilean court asked for testimony from former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger about the role of US intelligence in the case.   Judge Zepeda has made use of many declassified US documents in finally bringing about justice in this case.

In his request for extradition, Zepeda describes Davis as being in a position of authority which would have allowed him to stop the murders from occurring but that he chose not to do so due to his coordination efforts with the Chilean army to place Pinochet in power. 

 Captain Davis has denied any knowledge or role in the murders throughout the years.  In an article just released by the Washington Post, his wife Patricia states that Davis is in a nursing home and suffering from advanced Alzheimer’s disease.

The US Embassy in Santiago released a statement that noted they would not comment on specific cases but that the US government supports through investigations into the murders so that those responsible are brought to justice.

 

For more information, please see:

Merco Press – Chile Requests Extradition of Former US Army Officer Allegedly Involved in the 1973 Killing of two US Citizens – 1 December 2011

The Washington Post National – Wife of Former US Navy Captain Sought for Extradition to Chile Says he has Alzheimer’s – 1 December 2011

The Santiago Times – Chilean Judge Indicts Former US Officer Over Coup Killings – 30 November 2011

BBC News – Chile Seeks Ray Davis Extradition Over 1973 Coup Murder – 29 November 2011

CNN International – Chilean Judge Indicts US Military Official in 1973 Killings – 29 November 2011

USA Today – Chilean Judge Charges Ex-US Military Officer – 28 November 2011

Proposed Saudi Law Would Allow Indefinite Detention

By Tyler Yates
Impunity Watch Reporter, Middle East

RIYADH, Saudi Arabia — A proposed Saudi Arabian law would allow the kingdom to detain security suspects indefinitely and without trial.   It indicates that peaceful acts of dissent could in the future be prosecuted as a “terrorist crime.”

Tightened security in Saudi Arabia (Photo courtesy of al Jazeera)

A copy of the law leaked to Amnesty International earlier this year.

Amnesty included commentary on the proposed law in a report released on Thursday about the state of freedom of expression in Saudi Arabia, in which it called the situation “dire.”

It criticized the Saudi “vague and broad” definitions of terrorism, which range from “destabilizing society” to “harming the reputation of the state.”

“The formulation of a new anti-terror law is another apparent sign of the authorities to use the law to silence dissent,” Amnesty International said.

“This opaqueness could be exploited to charge peaceful meetings of a group of people who make political demands or even engage in academic discussions with a ‘terrorist crime’ under this draft law.”

Saudi Arabia has thus far avoided the popular uprisings of the Arab Spring that have consumed much of the region, but it appears they are proactively attempting to repress any future opposition.

Amnesty has called on the Saudi government to release all prisoners of conscience, denouncing the “extremely weak” protection of human rights in Saudi Arabia. It says hundreds of people have been arrested in the east, many without charge or trial.

Detained prisoners are often held for months without trial or access to a lawyer.  Confessions are extracted under duress, including beatings with sticks, punching, suspension from the ceiling by the ankles or wrists, and sleep deprivation.

When cases are brought to trial, the proceedings are often held behind closed doors, and fail to live up to the international standards for judicial fairness and transparency.

Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy that doesn’t have a written criminal code.  Their law is instead based upon an uncodified version of Islamic Shari’a law as interpreted by judges.

The Saudi embassy in London claims that the report is based upon “inaccurate information” taken from a law that has been circulating for years and that is still subject to changes.

“The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is committed to and respects human rights in accordance with Islamic sharia, which is the foundation of our legal system,” Saudi Ambassador Prince Mohammed bin Nawaf Al Saud said in a statement.

The embassy says that all those detained were endangering the lives of others.  Most of them were released without charge after questioning. It denied any human rights violations against the detainees.

For more information, please see:

Al Jazeera — Draft Saudi security law faces criticism — 01 Dec. 2011

BBC — Saudi Arabia rejects Amnesty repression claims — 01 Dec. 2011

MSNBC — Report: Saudi draft terror law legalizes repression — 01 Dec. 2011

Voice of America — Report Charges Saudis with “New Wave of Repression” — 01 Dec. 2011

Despite British Objection, Nigerian Senate Passes Bill Banning Homosexuality

By Zach Waksman
Impunity Watch Reporter, Africa

ABUJA, Nigeria­ – Gay rights in Nigeria took a step backwards on Tuesday.  In the face of the United Kingdom’s threat to cut off aid to Africa’s most populous country, its Senate unanimously passed a bill that, if approved by the House of Representatives and signed by President Goodluck Jonathan, would make same-sex relationships illegal.  The action has been met with widespread approval among the general population.

Newspaper headlines in Nigeria celebrated the Senate's passage of a bill that would make same-sex relationships illegal. (Photo courtesy of AFP/Getty Images)

The bill would have several significant effects on homosexuals.  If passed, which is expected, anyone who enters into a same-sex relationship or civil union would face a 14-year term in jail upon conviction.  Those convicted of “witness[ing], abet[ting] and aid[ing]” the performance of a same-sex marriage and “support[ing] the registration [of same]” would serve 10 years behind bars, as would anybody who registered or operated a gay nightclub or organization.  It would also invalidate any certificates of marriage for same-sex relationships issued outside of Nigeria.  Section 3 of the bill provides that “only marriage contracted between a man and a woman either under Islamic law, customary law or the marriage Act is [recognized] as valid in Nigeria.”

Last month, British Prime Minister David Cameron warned that his country would consider withholding aid to countries that discriminated against homosexuals.  In justifying the bill, Senate President David Mark considered it a way of protecting his country’s values.

“If there is any country that does not want to give us aid or assistance just because we want to hold on to our values, that country can keep her aid and assistance,” he said, in what may have been a reference to the threat.  “No country has the right to interfere in the way we make our own laws because we don’t interfere in the way others make their own laws.”

Nigeria had been debating this bill for the past month.  This morning, after the bill’s passage, The Sun Newspaper’s headline proudly declared “”Homosexuals are in trouble!”  But according to Chude Jideonwo, a Nigerian journalist, the country is already strongly homophobic.  To many, the belief is that “homosexuality is ‘of the devil,’ against our ‘culture’ and an encroachment of ‘sad Western values.’”  Even before passage, he said that there was not much demand, “even a quiet one,” for gay marriage of any form.  This raises the question of why the issue was raised in the first place.

“I can’t recall a particular place where this type of marriage has taken place in Nigeria,” said Adetokunbo Mumuni, director of the Socio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project.  “This particular thing they have assented to is a thing of no substance to Nigeria. They should focus on things that affect the majority of Nigerians.”

In international circles, the bill has not received much praise.  Andrew Lloyd, the U.K.’s High Commissioner to Nigeria, reiterated the possibility of sanctions, but added that the media may have overblown Cameron’s remarks.  On Wednesday, he spoke to journalists in Dutse to better explain the British position, which he believed would be matched by most of the Western world.

“It is wrong to punish people for mere expression of their relationships or for choosing to become what they have chosen for themselves,” Lloyd said.  “Punishment is infringement upon their fundamental human rights and the western countries would not condone the action.”

Amnesty International, a human rights group, condemned the legislation and called for the House to halt the bill’s passage.  It is concerned with the potentially massive effect the law would have on human rights for a wide variety of people besides the newly-criminalized homosexual population.

“This bill would have a chilling effect on a range of civil society organizations and events while inciting hatred and violence against anyone suspected of practicing same-sex relationships, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people,” said Erwin van der Borght, director of the organization’s Africa Programme.  “By aiming to single out and deprive the rights of one group of people, this bill threatens all Nigerians by violating the country’s Constitution and international human rights obligations.”

According to one of its supporters, an alleged effect of the bill would be an improvement in Nigeria’s overall health.

“Same sex marriage has negative effect on the health of anyone that involved in it,” said Senator Nkechi Nwogu.  “It was unanimous decision by the Senate to pass the bill into law. It is very unfortunate that the western countries want to force their culture on us.”

With similar legislation being discussed or otherwise proposed elsewhere on the continent, this might be the right time for the continent start a dialogue on the topic, which is normally a social taboo. Many African countries depend heavily on foreign aid to remain afloat.  To some, this situation presents an opportunity to deal with the issue directly, instead of trying to suppress it.

“Now is the time to talk about it … to get our house in order.  Let’s use this opportunity to say, ‘OK, if we didn’t have aid, how would we survive?’” said Nigel Mugamu of Zimbabwe. “Let’s talk about gay rights issues. Let’s turn this into a national – African discussion.”

For more information, please see:

CNN — Anti-Gay Law: ‘Why I’m Ashamed to Be Nigerian’ — 01 December 2011

CNN — Nigerian Senate Passes Anti-Gay Bill, Defying British Aid Threat — 01 December 2011

Daily Trust — Britain Won’t Accept Anti-Gay Law, Says Envoy — 01 December 2011

Nigerian Tribune — Senate Recommends 14-Year Jail Term for Same Sex Marriage — 30 November 2011

This Day — Senate Criminalises Same-Sex Marriage — 30 November 2011

Amnesty International — Nigeria Urged to Halt Bill Banning Same-Sex Relationships — 29 November 2011

People’s Daily — Senate Outlaws Same-Sex Marriage — 29 November 2011

Vanguard — Senate Bans Same-Sex Marriage — 29 November 2011

Sentencing Minors to Life Without Parole

By Brittney Hodnik
Impunity Watch Reporter, North America

WASHINGTON, United States – Amnesty International is advocating for the United States to stop its policy of courts sentencing children to life in prison without parole.  Amnesty’s recent publication, “This is where I’m going to be when I die; Children facing life imprisonment without the possibility of parole in the USA,” highlights the problems associated with condemning children to life in prison; the report illustrates the problem through the stories of three people.

Christi Cheramie was sentenced to life without parole at the age of 16. (Image courtesy of Amnesty International)

RTT News reports that there are more than 2,500 adult prisoners serving life in prison in the U.S. for crimes they committed as children.  Further, Irish Times News reports that in the United States, children as young as 11 years old have received life sentences.

Natacha Mension is a Campaigner on the USA at Amnesty International.  She said, “In the USA, people under 18 years old cannot vote, buy alcohol, lottery tickets or consent to most forms of medical treatment but they can be sentenced to die in prison for their actions.  This needs to change.”

As of now, according to RTT, Amnesty International reports that the United States and Somalia are the only two nations that have not ratified the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child.  This convention forbids life sentences without parole for crimes committed by minors, no matter what the crime is.  The convention has been in place for nearly two decades now.

The United States Supreme Court found that “life without parole is an especially harsh punishment for a juvenile” because a child offender “will serve, on average, more years and a greater percentage of his or her life in prison than an older offender” will serve for the same crime, according to Amnesty International.

BBC News further reports that Amnesty reinforces the idea that it does not condone child crime whatsoever.  “We are not excusing crimes committed by children or minimizing their consequences, but the simple reality is that these sentences ignore the special potential for rehabilitation and change that young offenders have,” said Mension.

Amnesty’s above-mentioned case study took an in depth look at three people including Christi Cheramie.  Cheramie killed her 18-year-old fiancé’s great aunt when she was 16 years old.  She is now 33 and still in prison, seeking an executive clemency with the Louisiana Board of Pardons.  The report details her childhood which was “marked by sexual abuse” and at least two attempts of suicide.

Amnesty will continue to press the United States to change its policy in this area of law and sentencing, arguing that life imprisonment for a minor is too harsh a sentence.

For more information, please visit:

BBC News– US Must Stop Jailing Minors for Life, Says Amnesty — 30 Nov. 2011

Irish Times News — Too Young to Vote, But They Can Be  Sentenced to Die in a US Prison — 30 Nov. 2011

RTT News — US Urged to Halt Jailing Minors for Life Without Parole — 30 Nov. 2011

Amnesty International — USA Must Halt Life Without Parole Sentences for Children — 29 Nov. 2011

 

Belarus Under Fire For Death Sentence

By Terance Walsh
Impunity Watch Reporter, Europe

MINSK, Belarus  —  Human rights groups and the Council of Europe have taken aim at Belarus’s death penalty practice, calling for its abolition.  Criticism follows the Belarusian Supreme Court’s November 30th death sentence for two convicted of a Minsk subway bombing.  Belarus is the only country in Europe that still executes criminals.

The two men who were sentenced to death (Photo courtesy of RFE/RL)

Dmitry Konovalov and Vladislov Kovalyov were convicted of “an act of terrorism” for the perpetration of a bombing of a subway in Minsk in April 2011.  The attack killed 15 people and wounded more than 200 others.  They were also found guilty of participating in three other bomb attacks between 2005 and 2008 that resulted in over 100 people being injured.

The explosion took place during a crackdown by Belarusian President Aleksander Lukashenko against his political opposition.  Lukashenko said the bombing attacks were “aimed at undermining peace and stability in the country.”

Both Konovalov and Kovalyov were arrested just days after the attack, but the prosecution offered little explanation and no forensic evidence to support their apprehension.

During the trial the government called the defendants “explosive enthusiasts” who were not motivated by any political persuasion.  The prosecution argued that the men were not part of any terrorist group but were only driven by “hatred for mankind.”

Prosecutors maintain that both men confessed to participating in the bombing, but Kovalyov retracted his confession during the trial.  He said his confession was given under duress.

Judge Aleksandr Fyodorstov said the defendants “pose an exceptional danger to society, and an exceptional penalty should be applied to them.”

After the sentence was issued Lyubov Kobalyov, the mother of one of the defendants, told the press that the case against her son was fabricated.

Council of Europe secretary general Thorbjorn Jagland has spoken out against Belarus’s practice of capital punishment in general following the sentence.  In a statement he said, “The crime they were found guilty of was barbaric, but their punishment should not be the same.  Belarus is the only country in Europe which still executes people and I would urge the authorities to introduce an immediate moratorium with a view to its ultimate abolition.”

Ultimately the decision whether or not to execute the defendants remains in Lukashenko’s hands.  The sentence cannot be appealed, the only recourse the defendants have is a request for a pardon from Lukashenko.

Human rights activists have also petitioned to Lukashenko to call off the death penalty.  They have also called into question the evidence used to convict the two men.  Lukashenko, however, has already called for use of the full brunt of the law for the two convicts.

Figures from Amnesty International show that Belarus has executed 400 people for various crimes since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.  Currently only one man is on death row in Belarus for murders committed during a robbery.

Between 1990 and 1993, 85 people were sentenced to death in Belarus and 102 were sentenced between 1998 and 2010.

Among former Soviet states Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have adopted legislation officially abolishing the death penalty.  Kazakhstan, Russia, and Tajikistan have issued moratoriums on executions since 1991.

According to Amnesty International at least 17,800 people were sentenced to death worldwide in 2010.  The death penalty is most frequently imposed in China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, the United States, and Yemen.

Belarus is the only European country that still maintains capital punishment and government polls show a majority of Belarusians support the use of the death penalty for serious crimes.  A 2010 poll conducted by the Presidential Information and Analytical Center in Belarus shows 79.5 percent of Belearusians in favor of the death penalty.  Only 4.5 percent of Belarusians call for an immediate abolition of the death penalty.

Polling by independent organizations in Belarus show different figures.  One such organization shows 48 percent of the population in favor of abolition of the death penalty with another poll showing 39 percent of Belarusians against the death penalty.

The only time President Lukashenko has ever commuted a death sentence was in 1996 when he reduced a death sentence to a sentece of 20 years imprisonment.

For more information please see:

Irish Times — Death Sentence Criticized — 1 December 2011

New York Times — Belarus: Two Get Death Sentences For Subway Bombing — 1 December 2011

BBC — Belarus Metro Bomb: Two Sentenced To Death — 30 November 2011

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty — Belarus And The Death Penalty — 30 November 2011

Voice of America — European Council Urges Belarus To Abolish Death Penalty — 30 November 2011